Cyber breach is placed among the top operational risks by management consultants such as KPMG, EY and risk.net. A Plymouth University article shows that outdated systems can be a vulnerability for many vessel operators. Law firms are also warning against the rise in cyber-crime targeting the shipping industry. The accelerating rate of technological changes provides criminals with endless opportunities to gain access to unsecured systems. Increased connectivity to onshore facilities, more cloud computing, the use of connected networks instead of isolated computers, ‘bringing your own device’ (BYOD), use of social media and the Internet of Things – all contribute to the growing risk.